Overview

Title: Margaret M. Wheat Papers
Creator(s): Wheat, Margaret M.
Collection Number: 83-24
Dates (inclusive): 1879-1981
Physical Extent: 6.5 cubic feet (170 audio tapes, 8 reels of movie film)
Preferred Citation: Margaret M. Wheat papers, 83-24. Special Collections, University Libraries, University of Nevada, Reno.
Repository: University of Nevada, Reno. Special Collections Department
Permanent Link: http://dewey.library.unr.edu/xtf/view?docId=ead/83-24-ead.xml

Biographical Note

Margaret M. Wheat, 1908-1988

Margaret Marean Wheat was born September 9, 1908 in Fallon, Nevada. She received her education in Fallon and at the University of Nevada, Reno, where she studied geology. Recognized as a geologist and an anthropologist, her field experiences ranged from association with the U.S. Geological Survey to cave sitter at Winnemucca Lake, protecting the site from vandals. She worked as an archaeological field worker for the Nevada State Museum and also on water resources projects for the Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada, Reno. A special interest in the Ichthyosaur area in central Nevada involved her in the Nevada State Park System, and she served on the Nevada State Park Commission and on the Nevada Ichthyosaur Park Board between 1953 and 1960.

A major portion of Mrs. Wheat's research time was devoted to the Northern Paiute Indians. Recording and photographing these people, their arts, and life ways resulted in the book, Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes, published in 1967 by the University of Nevada Press. A grant from the Fleischmann Foundation to the Foresta Institute enabled Wheat to continue her work among the Paiutes; from 1968-1971 and 1972-1974 she made approximately 150 audio recordings of her elderly Paiute friends discussing their life ways, legends, and tribal history. She also did extensive photography among the Paiutes and was involved in the production of a film documenting their customs. Segments of the film footage were incorporated into "Tule Technology: Northern Paiute Uses/Marsh Resources in Western Nevada," by the Smithsonian Institution Office, Folk life Programs.

In 1980, Margaret Wheat received an honorary doctorate of science degree from the University of Nevada, Reno. She resided in Fallon, Nevada, until her death August 28, 1988.

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Scope and Content

The Wheat papers are a reflection of Wheat's professional life as a geologist and ethnographer; there are no personal papers in the collection. The papers were divided into five series: research files, Nevada State Parks, Nevada Indians, tapes and tapescripts, and photographs and films.

The strength of this collection lies with the resources on the lifestyles of Northern Paiute Indians of Nevada. Wheat, a curious and eager observer, made many friends among elderly Paiute tribal members over the years and gradually won their confidence, so that she was able to make notes on their technology, photograph their lifestyle, and finally tape record their memories of customs and cultural practices that were fast disappearing. The results were two significant works: Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes, and a series of oral and film recordings which are found in this collection.

Wheat began her professional career during the early 1950s when she was studying the pluvial geology of Lake Lahontan. Some of the files found in series 1, "Research Files" contain her papers on the subject, as well as those of her colleagues. Correspondence in this series documents her work in this field and that of budding geologists who wrote detailing their progress toward advanced degrees and asking for her advice. Letters from the 1950s also describe work she undertook for the Nevada State Museum as a field ethnologist, a period when she began to discover and conduct research about caves used by prehistoric communities.

Wheat was instrumental in persuading Dr. Charles L. Camp, paleontologist from the University of California, Berkeley, to begin excavation of ichthyosaur fossils discovered near Gabbs, Nevada. She was a member of the Nevada Ichthyosaur Park Board and the Nevada State Park Commission and collected extensive documentation pertaining to the sometimes acrimonious struggles to provide funds for Dr. Camp's work and to develop the site as a Nevada State Park. Her files labeled "Ichthyosaur Battle" contain original and xeroxed copies of correspondence, financial statements, invoices, Park Commission minutes, and notes designed, in her eyes, to keep the park alive and prevent the Commission from becoming a rubber stamp for Thomas W. Miller and Howard Squires, chair and director respectively, of the State Park Commission.

Many of the products of Wheat's intellectual curiosity about the Indians of Nevada may be found in Series III, "Indians." Among the items represented here are indexes and professional papers on linguistics. Many of the indexes were created in collaboration with Sven Liljeblad, a linguist at Idaho State University and later the University of Nevada-Reno. Wheat acquired a scrapbook compiled by J.D. Oliver, Superintendent of the Nevada Indian School in the early part of the twentieth century. Clippings in the scrapbook and from historical Nevada newspapers which Wheat amassed provided details on Nevada Indians used to further her own work, including an interest in Sarah Winnemucca. Wheat attended the Pyramid Lake Area Technical Group meetings; several files containing clippings, correspondence, and notes serve to remind the reader that her interest in Paiutes extended from prehistory to the present.

Among the more important files of this series are those about Jack Wilson, also known as Wovoka, who led the American Indian ghost dance movement. These files include a manuscript by Wheat about Ed Dyer, who had many contacts with Wilson; a manuscript by Dyer entitled "The Jack Wilson Story;" several articles and part of a thesis about Wilson; a transcript of an oral interview with Ed Wilson; and information about the Vidovich family members who were Jack Wilson's grandchildren.

Wheat began recording conversations with Paiute friends in the late 1950s when she was given a used wire spool tape recorder. She continued her recordings utilizing a reel to reel recorder in the late 1960s and 1970s through a grant from the Fleischmann Foundation to the Foresta Institute. Those recordings are now part of the Wheat papers, as are transcriptions made of a number of those original recordings and tapes. Approximately one-half of the transcriptions were made by Wheat; the others were made by Professor Catherine Fowler and her interns during 1991. The collection also contains indexes made of the recordings; indexes are both by name and by Human Resource Area File subject terms. The last series, "Photographs and Films" has been transferred to the photo archives section of the Special Collections Department. Many of the several thousand photographs were taken by Wheat, or by Rolly R. Ham and Laura E. Mills. A fuller description of this series can be found near the end of this collection guide. Copies of the film have been made on VHS video tape and are available for researcher use. These films were the raw materials from which the film "Tule Technology" was made.

Restrictions

Copyright to the audio resources in the Margaret Wheat Papers is held by the Special Collections Department, University of Nevada-Reno Libraries and is provided here for educational purposes only. They may not be downloaded, reproduced, or distributed in any format without written permission of the Special Collections Department, University of Nevada-Reno Libraries. Any attempt to circumvent the access controls placed on the files is a violation of United States and international copyright laws, and is subject to criminal prosecution.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Donated to the Special Collections Department by Margaret M. Wheat between 1980 and 1984; Papers, tapes, photos, films donated by Margaret M. Wheat in 1981. An additional gift of S. R. Marean correspondence and manuscript drafts of Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes was donated by Wheat's daughter, Sylvia J. Jesch, in 1990.

Separated Materials

Photographs and films were transferred to the photo archives section of the Special Collections Department. Most printed materials such as professional journals and books were also transferred; the front cover of each such item was xeroxed and placed in designated folders within each series and the original materials were placed in either the Special Collections book stacks or transferred to the Gifts and Exchange Department of the library.

Series 5 photographs and the film described below, were transferred to the photo archives sections of the Special Collections Department. UNRS-P1989-32

Series 5 photographs and the film described below, were transferred to the photo archives sections of the Special Collections Department.

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Arrangement

  • Arranged into five series: I. Research files, 1914-1981. II. Nevada State Parks, 1954-1961. III. Nevada Indians, 1879-1971. IV. Audio tapes and transcripts, 1868-1978. V. Photographs and film. VI. Correspondence of Stanley Marean, 1918; 1943-1968. VII. Ms drafts of Survival arts of the primitive Paiutes.

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General note

Box 9 and Box 10 [File box originally labeled "File Behind H.R.A.F."] contain six indexes.

Index Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the online catalog of the University Libraries, University of Nevada, Reno. Researchers wishing to find related materials are encouraged to use the following index terms:

Organizations:

People:

Subjects:

Geographic Locations:



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Administrative Information

Collection processed by Lenore M. Kosso and Susan Searcy, 1983; February 1989. Finding aid prepared by Lenore M. Kosso and Susan Searcy, 1983; February 1989. , June 2008. This finding aid was produced using the Archivists' Toolkit on July 12, 2016.

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Detailed Description of the Records

Series 1: Research Files, 1914-1981

This series contains research notes, correspondence, and reports on a variety of subjects, including geology of Nevada, anthropological associations, Nevada history, pluvial lakes of Nevada, Churchill County history, use of Wheat's slides in publications, Lake Lahontan, and earthquakes. These files are arranged roughly in alphabetical order following Wheat's original folder labels.

box
folder
Contents
1/S1
1
Am Arcs (Amateur Archaeologists). Newsletter, conference programs, 1972-1976
1/S1
2-3
Anthropological Societies. Conference programs, 1956-1967
1/S1
4
Archaeology. (Notes on basketry.), 1914-1975
1/S1
5
Archaeology. Caves: Winnemucca and Falcon Hill, 1952-1978
1/S1
6
Archaeology. Winnemucca Cave correspondence, 1952-1953
1/S1
7-9
Correspondence (from students and colleagues), 1938-1971; Undated
1/S1
10
Correspondence. Nevada State Museum, 1952-1961
1/S1
11-12
Earthquakes, 1950s; 1965-1981
1/S1
13
Eugenia Clair Smith Foundation. Correspondence, clippings, 1955-1956
1/S1
14
Geology. "Report on Geologic-Geomorphic Setting of Argillic Horizon Study Sites in Western Nevada." By John W. Hawley, 1969
1/S1
15
Historical. Copies of the following, 1934-1953
1/S1
15
1
"True Stories of Old Rawhide" and "Ruins of a Mystery Village" from the Fallon Standard, 1939
1/S1
15
2
"A Trip to Carson Valley" by O.B. Huntington
1/S1
15
3
"The Travels of Jedediah Smith" by Maurice S. Sullivan, 1934
1/S1
15
4
"Fremont's Memoirs - Nevada Treck [sic]."
1/S1
15
5
"The Life of Baron De Lahontan," from the Encyclopedia Britannica Library Research Service
1/S1
15
6
Letter about Baron La Hontan from Americana Institute, 1953
1/S1
16
Historical. Papers on the following, 1942-1947
1/S1
16
1
"Fremont's Routes Through Nevada", 1942
1/S1
16
2
"The Mormons in Nevada, 1848-1880," by Byrd Sawyer, 1947
1/S1
16
3
"Nevada colony, 1916-1918."
1/S1
17
Historical. Papers on the following, 1947
1/S1
17
1
Fallon High School, 1910-1933. List of all class members and addresses, [1947]
1/S1
17
2
"A Famous Ride," by Ethel G. Whitaker
1/S1
17
3
"Forty-Niners."
1/S1
17
4
Miscellaneous research notes
1/S1
17
5
"Riley Grannan's Last Adventure," by Sam C. Dunham
1/S1
17
6
"A Huge Melon", 1947
1/S1
18
Historical. Papers on the following, 1964
1/S1
18
1
"The Development of the Yuma Route Before 1846," by Jack D. Forbes, 1964
1/S1
18
2
"Nevada's Outdoor Historical Heritage," by Jack D. Forbes, 1964
1/S1
19
Historical, miscellaneous
1/S1
19
1
"Historical Stage Stops" by Eugene Lytle, 1927
1/S1
19
2
Newspaper clippings
1/S1
19
3
Cranston family trees
1/S1
19
4
"The Pony Express (A Brief History)."
1/S1
19
5
Chronology for Nevada transportation history
1/S1
19
6
"Historical Places on the Field Trip to Buffalo Canyon" by Gladys Crehore
1/S1
20
Historical
1/S1
20
1
"Tippah Springs" by M. Ream, 1940
1/S1
20
2
Reviews/notes from books read: "Gold Seekers of '49" by Kimball Webster; and excerpts from the Journal of Parley Parker Pratt."
1/S1
21
Historical: "Our Nevada, Land of Contrasts" by Ethelyn Coverston
1/S1
22
Historical: "My Playhouse was a Concord Coach" by May Helene Bacon Bogs, Undated
1/S1
23
Historical: "John (Jack) Sheehan", 1950
1/S1
24
Historical: "Transcription of Mr. and Mrs. Kyler and the Pyramid Lake", Undated
1/S1
25
Oil (in Nevada). Reports, clippings, photos, prospectus, ca 1950s
1/S1
26-27
"Pluvial Lakes of Nevada and Estimated Full Pluvial Climates" by M.D. Mifflin and M. Wheat, 1977
1/S1
28
INQUA [International Association for Quaternary Research] Field Conference. Guide book draft
box
folder
Contents
2/S1
1
Xeroxes of title pages of printed material removed from collection and placed in book stacks
2/S1
2
News clippings, "People - Non-Indians."
2/S1
3-6
Churchill County chronological history; and index to The State (Unionville), Humboldt Register, The Silver State (Winnemucca), and Churchill County Eagle. Articles about Paiutes, events, and, occasionally recipes, 1871-1914
2/S1
7-11
Place Names of Nevada. Worksheets [from Carlson's manuscript?], critique of Carlson's manuscript, interview of Irving Sanford by M. Wheat on place names (1957), "Principles Underlying Domestic Place Name Decisions" by Meredith F. Burrill, correspondence (1952), research notes, and Contributions Toward a Flora of Nevada no. 29 (Index to Geographical Names, 1941)
2/S1
12
Singer Education and Training Products. Correspondence regarding use of Wheat's slides, 1971-1972
2/S1
13
Toll roads (Nevada). Typescript notes on toll roads, ca 1861-1865
2/S1
14
University of Washington Press. Correspondence regarding use of Wheat's slides, 1970
2/S1
15
Water. Clippings, "Hydrographic Regions of Nevada," correspondence regarding the Carson River suit, (1933); (1967)
2/S1
16
Lahontan Dam Project, 1958-1977
2/S1
17
"Quaternary Tephrochronology of the Lake Lahontan Area, Nevada and California." Dissertation by Jonathan Ogden Davis, 1977
2/S1
18
Lake Lahontan
2/S1
19
Abstracts of papers presented at the Symposium on Problems of the Lake Lahontan Basin, 1958
2/S1
20
"Preliminary Studies of Lake Lahontan Features at Boot Hill, Pershing County, Nevada" by Margaret M. Wheat, January 1961
2/S1
21
Lake Lahontan Symposium. Field trips: 1965 INQUA Great Basin-California, 1964; INQUA Calif. - Nevada (undated); G.S.A. field trip road logs, undated; Friends of the Pleistocene Rocky Mountain Section, 6th annual trip, Little Valley - Promontory Point, Utah, 1960; Friends of Pleistocene, Pacific Coast Section, Searles Valley, California, 1967.
2/S1
22
Pleistocene
2/S1
23
Lake Lahontan: Geology - Magnetic Field. Correspondence, notes, clippings, 1955-1973
2/S1
24
Soils: Classification and Description, "Soil Stratigraphy: Principals, Applications..." thesis by Roger Barron Morrison, 1964
2/S1
25
Energy - Wind Power, 1974
2/S1
26
Deephole. Notes, xeroxed articles
box
folder
Contents
3/S1
1
Isostatic Loading Glaciation
3/S1
2
Western U.S.I.T.
3/S1
3
Unlabeled worksheets
3/S1
4
Seismology. Programs for Seismology Society of America meetings, 1957, 1966, 1978
3/S1
5
Miscellaneous articles
3/S1
5
1
"It Happened in Genoa" by Dorothy Nafus Morrison
3/S1
5
2
[Map cataloging] by unknown author
3/S1
5
3
"Hydrology of the Basalt-Aquifer System" by Pat Glancy, undated
3/S1
6
Xeroxes of publications placed in book stacks

Series 2: Nevada State Parks, 1954-1961

Margaret Wheat generated, received, and collected these papers while serving on the Nevada Ichthyosaur Park Board and the Nevada State Parks Commission. A major portion of this material relates to the site near Gabbs, Nevada, where ichthyosaur fossils were discovered and subsequently excavated by Dr. Charles L. Camp, and to the efforts of Wheat and others to have the area declared a state park. Especially interesting is the documentation of the controversy between Dr. Camp; Thomas W. Miller, chair of the State Park Commission; Howard Squires, director of the Commission; and Harold P. Newman, Ichthyosaur Park employee and member of the Nevada Ichthyosaur Park Board, which was collected by Wheat as "battle data." Other materials chronicle the creation of new parks such as Beowawe Geysers and the development of already established units such as Valley of Fire and Fort Churchill. Included are correspondence, newspaper clippings, meeting minutes and agendas, financial summaries, budgets, laws, regulations, reports, testimony, and parks and recreation printed background material from Nevada and California. Arranged chronologically by subseries.

box
folder
Item
Contents
3/S2
7-10
Ichthyosaur battle data. Includes correspondence, legislation, clippings, copies of State Parks Commission minutes for, and bylaws of the Nevada State Parks Commission. Most of the original correspondence is from Dr. Camp to Wheat; a substantial amount of correspondence consists of copies of letters to and from Camp, Miller, Squires, and Newman, 1955-1958; July 20, 1956; (1956)
3/S2
11-18
Correspondence. State Park Commission business, additional "Ichy Battle Data," letters concerning Wheat's appointment to the Park Commission, other state park sites, hiring a new Director of the Park Commission, and letters from Director William J. Hart., 1955-1960; (1959)
3/S2
19
Notes, Undated
3/S2
20-22
Park Commission meeting minutes and agendas, 1956-1960
3/S2
23-24
Expenses and budget material, 1957-1961
3/S2
25
Laws and regulations, 1957-1959
3/S2
26
Reports and testimony. Includes a "Feasibility Survey, Restoration of Historic Buildings, State of Nevada.", 1956-1960; 1965
3/S2
27
News releases and newsletters, 1959-1960
3/S2
28
Maps: Whittell land, Sand Harbor and special use permit. Drawing of ichthyosaur, 1957; Undated
3/S2
29
State Parks policy statements from other states, 1954-1959
3/S2
30
California State Parks printed material: reports, News and Views, 1959
3/S2
31
Outdoor recreation and conservation printed material, 1957-1960
3/S2
32
Newspaper clippings, 1954-1960

Series 3: Indians, 1879-1971

This series contains material collected by Wheat in her research on the Northern Paiute Indians of Nevada and is divided into subject files and indexes. The subject files contain clippings; copies of older correspondence between John T. Reid, Senator Tasker Oddie, and others; a bibliography on the subject; correspondence with Sven Liljeblad at Idaho State University; research on Sarah Winnemucca, Jack Wilson (Wovoka), and Wilson's grandsons, the Vidovichs; articles and notes on linguistics; a scrapbook compiled by J.D. Oliver, Superintendent of the Nevada Indian School; and extensive documentation on two grants from the Fleischmann Foundation to the Foresta Institute which enabled Wheat to tape oral interviews with Paiute elders. The indexes include a ethnographic glossary, and a number of linguistic indexes for English-Paiute, Paiute-English terms. Many of the latter were compiled by Sven Liljeblad, and include terms for plants, animals, and other elements in the Paiutes' natural habitat. Subject files are arranged alphabetically according to Wheat's file headings; indexes follow Wheat's original order.

Box 9 and Box 10 [File box originally labeled "File Behind H.R.A.F."] contain six indexes.

box
folder
Item
Contents
4/S3
1
Bannock War. Xerox of the book The Bannock War of 1878 by George Francis Brimlow. [Removed from collection; Special Collections has a copy of this book in its book stacks.]
4/S3
2a-b
Bibliography
4/S3
3
Correspondence (copies) between John T. Reid, Senator Oddie and others, 1932-1933
4/S3
4
"Examples of subject matter" [for Wheat's book Survival Arts of the Northern Paiute?].
4/S3
5-8
Fleischmann-Foresta Grant. Correspondence regarding two grants for taped and filmed interviews of Paiutes, financial records, calendars, plan of work, grant applications, and interim reports, 1962-1978
4/S3
9
Clippings
4/S3
10
Idaho State, 1970-1971
4/S3
11
Inter-Tribal Council. Notes on oral history project (financial accounting), manuscript on Sarah Winnemucca, Undated
4/S3
12a
Linguistics. Includes two articles: "Linguistic Prehistory in the Great Basin" by Sydney M. Lamb (published and manuscript version); and "Comparative Vocabularies of North American Indians" by C. Hart Merriam.
4/S3
12b
Linguistics notebook
4/S3
13
"Mesquite: Lagniappe of the Desert" by John M. Belville. Draft reviewed by Wheat with her comments. Also "They Ate the Scenery" by Belville
4/S3
14
Miscellaneous (genealogical notes)
4/S3
14b
Mono Dialects classification
4/S3
15
Ovie expenses. Notes on cost of producing ethnographic film; list of subject matter and descriptions of each subject included in the film, undated
4/S3
15b
Music
4/S3
16
"Non-Paiute: Folio K." "Death of Burton Wungnema-Hopi."
4/S3
17
Notes on ethnology. Newsletters by various tribes; work plan for project
4/S3
18
J.D. Oliver (Supt. of the Nevada Indian School): scrapbook. Clippings about Paiutes; and letter to Oliver from the Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, 1911; ca 1917
4/S3
18b
Oliver scrapbook transcription
4/S3
19
Outline of Cultural Materials by George P. Murdock et al., 1961
4/S3
20
Paiute lexicon. Correspondence from Sven Liljeblad, 1969
4/S3
21
Paiute research
4/S3
22
Peterson Pancho book
4/S3
23-25
Pyramid Lake. Clippings, correspondence regarding the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, notes from meetings of the Pyramid Lake Area Technical Group, notice of sale of land leases at the lake, and articles from the New Yorker, 1956-1961
4/S3
26
Reese River Reveille clippings about Indians
4/S3
27
Statement of Hastings Pancho and the wife of Dick Sampson. Drawing of room arrangement for Paiute curing ceremony, 1929
4/S3
28
Stick census. Census of Indians of Nevada, transcribed by Wheat in 1952, 1879-1880
4/S3
29-30
Wilson, Jack "Wovoka." Manuscript "The Ed Dyer Story" by Wheat; correspondence from Dyer; research notes; interviews; "The Jack Wilson Story" by Edward A. Dyer; portions of a thesis "The Doctrine of the Resurrection of the Dead" (Ghost Dance); transcript of Ed Wilson's oral interview; and "Wavoka" article by Grace Dangberg which appeared in the Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, Summer 1968
4/S3
31
Vidovich. Newspaper clippings about Harlyn and Daniel Vidovich, notes, and a portion of the thesis "Factionalism in a Northern Paiute Tribe as a Consequence of the Indian Reorganization Act" by Michael Hittman
4/S3
32
Notebook "Words from Kay and Sven." [Nearly empty.]
4/S3
33
Notebook: journal
4/S3
34
Notebook: "People, Places, Things."
box
Item
Contents
5/S3
1
Index: Ethnographic glossary
5/S3
2
Index: Plants: arranged by botanical name followed by its Paiute equivalent
5/S3
3
Index: Plants: alphabetical by botanical name followed by its Paiute term
5/S3
4
Index: Bibliography
5/S3
5
Index: "Dead Card File"
box
Item
Contents
6/S3
1
"Indian Words with Sven [Liljeblad]." English term, followed by Paiute equivalent. Unarranged
box
Item
Contents
7/S3
1
Index: "Indian Words with Sven [Liljeblad]." Arranged by gross subject such as plants, animals, reptiles, rocks, fish, birds, and insects
box
Item
Contents
8/S3
1
Index: "Sven's Words." Northern Paiute word list with English translation. Arranged alphabetically by Paiute word
box
Item
Contents
9/S3
1
Index: "Personal File." Arranged alphabetically by name of individual; for each name, tape and tapescript numbers where the name is mentioned are given
9/S3
2
Index: "Subject Index" using Human Resource Area File (H.R.A.F.) terms for interviews: arranged alphabetically/numerically by H.R.A.F. index terms and numbers. Contains newspaper clippings, notes from oral interviews, photos (pasted on cards) of people and activities, some of which were used in Wheat's book, Survival Arts....
box
Item
Contents
10/S3
3
Index: "Non-Paiute." Using H.R.A.F. terms, an index to activities on non-Paiute Indians in Nevada, abstracted from newspaper clippings and other printed, contemporary sources.
10/S3
4
Index: "Personal File." Similar to personal file above
10/S3
5
Index: "Photographs." Images of food gathering activities or tools, pasted on cards describing activities/subjects, and providing date and place of image capture.
10/S3
6
Index: Research notes on a variety of Paiute subjects

Series 4: Tapes and Transcripts

The Foresta Institute was the recipient of grant funds from the Fleischmann Foundation in 1968 and 1977, the purposes of which were to record the memories of the elder Paiute generation. Margaret Wheat was the principal researcher for this project; the results of her work were some 171 audio tapes and several thousand feet of movie film documenting Paiute history, genealogy, technology, food gathering techniques, and survival arts. About one-third of the audio tapes were transcribed and indexed by personal name and H.R.A.F. subject terms. In addition, work status sheets and tape indexes provide intellectual access to the recordings. Tape transcripts are divided into two sections: the first is arranged numerically by tape number and the second follows Wheat's original order which grouped two or more tapescripts by their subject or by the name of the interviewee; these tapescripts are duplicate copies of the originals.

Taped interviews were recorded by Wheat in several formats. Prior to the Foresta grant, Wheat used wire spool recorders. Most of the grant interviews were done on either 7" or 5" reel to reel tapes and duplicates were made on same size tape. Later, additional interviews of non-Paiutes were made on cassette tapes, and duplicates of older 7" tapes were also done on cassettes. Finally, Wheat had duplicate tapes made of the wire recordings, most of which are on reel to reel tapes. The listing below includes information on whether a duplicate was made, whether a wire spool was copied onto another format, and whether a tapescript is available. The policy of the Special Collections Department is to allow use of copies of tapes only; if a tape currently exists only in its original format, a cassette copy will be made at the patron's expense before access will be granted (Boxes 14-26). None of the tapes in Box 28 have tape numbers.

box
Contents
11/S4
Subject index to tape transcripts
box
Item
Contents
12/S4
1
Tape project status sheets. Control sheets listing tape number, name of interviewee, date, place, size of tape, and whether tapescript was made
12/S4
2-3
H.R.A.F. index to tapescripts. Arranged alphabetically by index term; also included is a key to initials used for names in tapescripts.
12/S4
4-5
Tape index. Arranged numerically by tape number; entries include name of interviewee, location and circumstances of interview, and notes about subject content. Also included in front of each volume is a list of tapes and subjects, with notations as to date and place of recording and whether the original tape was copied.
12/S4
6
Index to cassettes, Indians-Personal. Arranged numerically by tape number; each entry lists name of subject, date of interview, and subjects discussed.
12/S4
7
Tape #:18, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Margaret (hereafter referred to as "Wheat")
12/S4
8
Tape #:19, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Alice Steve, Wuzzue George, Wheat, Dave Marshall
12/S4
9
Tape #:20, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Alice Steve, Wheat, Dave Marshall
12/S4
10
Tape #:22A, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Wheat, Tom Trelease, Ira LaRivers
12/S4
11
Tape #:22B, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Alice Steve, Wheat, Ira LaRivers, Tom Trelease, Buck Wheeler
12/S4
12
Tape #:23, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Wheat, Ira LaRivers, Tom Trelease
12/S4
13
Tape #:24, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Wheat, Dave Marshall
12/S4
14
Tape #:26, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Wheat
12/S4
15
Tape #:27, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Wheat
12/S4
16
Tape #:28, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Wheat
12/S4
17
Tape #:29, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Wheat
12/S4
18
Tape #:30, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Lily Shaw, Dora John, Wheat
12/S4
19
Tape #:31, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Wheat
12/S4
20
Tape #:32, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Wheat
12/S4
21
Tape #:33, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina
12/S4
22
Tape #:35, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Mabel Wright Paulina
12/S4
23-26
Tape #:40-43, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Tim Hooper
12/S4
27
Tape #:45, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Jenny? and ?
12/S4
28
Tape #:46, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Lidia Dunn, Mabel Wright Paulina, Nina Winnemucca, Bert Johnny, Wheat
12/S4
29
Tape #:47, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Herbert Pancho, Mabel Wright Paulina
12/S4
30
Tape #:50, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Mabel Wright Paulina
12/S4
31
Tape #:51, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Alice Steve, Sven Liljeblad, Wheat
12/S4
32
Tape #:52A, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Ethelyn Coverton, Wheat
12/S4
33
Tape #:52B, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Ethelyn Coverton, Wheat
12/S4
34
Tape #:58, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Jimmie George, Wheat
12/S4
35
Tape #:59, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): (Pt. II&III) Wuzzie George, Jimmie George, Wheat
12/S4
36
Tape #:62, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Jimmie George, Wendell Wheat
12/S4
37
Tape #:63, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Edna George, Wheat
12/S4
38
Tape #:67, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Bessie, Wheat
12/S4
39
Tape #:68, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Lucy Kinsman, Sidney Lamb
12/S4
40
Tape #:72, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Mabel Wright Paulina
12/S4
41-43
Tape #:74, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Andy Vidovich, Alice Vidovich, Dolly Vidovich
12/S4
44
Tape #:77, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Birdie Dave, Helen Williams, Rosie Moose
12/S4
45
Tape #:78, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Essie Allen, Wheat, Iona Byers, Maria
12/S4
46
Tape #:79, Name(s) of Interviewee(s): Wuzzie George, Wheat, unidentified man
box
Item
Contents
13/S4
1-2
Tape#:80, Name(s) of Interviewees(s): Wuzzie George, Wheat
13/S4
3-4
Tape#:81, Wuzzie George, Wheat (and unidentified woman on tape 3)
13/S4
5
Tape#:82, Pinenut Festival, Schurz, Nevada
13/S4
6
Tape#:83, Pinenut Prayer
13/S4
7
Tape#:84, Wuzzie George
13/S4
8
Tape#:85, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina
13/S4
9
Tape#:86, Wuzzie George, Wheat
13/S4
10
Tape#:88, Mabel Wright Paulina, Katie Frazier
13/S4
11
Tape#:89, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina
13/S4
12
Tape#:90, Andy Vidovich, Dan Vidovich, Dolly Vidovich
13/S4
13
Tape#:91, Mabel Wright Paulina
13/S4
14
Tape#:93, Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina
13/S4
15
Tape#:95, Helen Williams
13/S4
16
Tape#:96, Andy Vidovich, Dolly Gerow Vidovich
13/S4
17
Tape#:97, Helen Williams, Birdie Dave, Rosie Moose
13/S4
18
Tape#:98, Helen Williams
13/S4
19
Tape#:100, Wuzzie George, Ray Alcorn, Wheat, unidentified man
13/S4
20
Tape#:100, Andy Vidovich
13/S4
21
Tape#:101, Mabel Wright Paulina, Daisy Aster
13/S4
22
Tape#:102, Mabel Wright Paulina, Mamie Pancho Smith John
13/S4
23
Tape#:103, Birdie Dave, Helen Williams
13/S4
24
Tape#:104, Helen Williams, Birdie Dave
13/S4
25
Tape#:105, Helen Williams
13/S4
26
Tape#:106, Birdie Dave, Helen Williams
13/S4
27
Tape#:107, Helen Williams
13/S4
28
Tape#:110, Nellie Emm
13/S4
29
Tape#:113, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina
13/S4
30
Tape#:114, Ruth Houghton, Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil
13/S4
31
Tape#:115, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright, Katie Frazier, Ruth [Coleman], Wheat
13/S4
32
Tape#:116, Nellie Emm
13/S4
33
Tape#:117, Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil
13/S4
34
Tape#:118, Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Astrid Liljeblad, Wheat
13/S4
35
Tape#:119, Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Wheat
13/S4
36
Tape#:120, Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, Astrid Liljeblad, Wheat
13/S4
37
Tape#:121, Wuzzie George, Jimmie [George]
13/S4
38
Tape#:131, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, Daisy Aster
13/S4
39
Tape#:132, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, Minnie Houten
13/S4
40
Tape#:133, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina
13/S4
41
Tape#:136, Ethel O'Neil, Josie French, Mabel Wright Paulina
13/S4
42
Tape#:137, Katie Frazier
13/S4
43
Tape#:138, Helen Williams, Beth Crittenden Swartzman
13/S4
44
Tape#:141, Marian Henry Paddy, Ada Natches Henry
13/S4
45
Tape#:142, [Edna Jones]
13/S4
46
Tape#:143, Wuzzie George, Winona Thomas
13/S4
47
Tape#:144, Edna Jones, Wuzzie George
13/S4
48
Tape#:147, Dr. Ralph Payne, Mrs. Payne
13/S4
49
Tape#:148, Wuzzie George, Tootsie Bowser
13/S4
50
Tape#:149, Helen Williams
13/S4
51
Tape#:151, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina
13/S4
52
Tape#:165, [Wuzzie George]
13/S4
53-54
Folio 1 - Stories abstracted from taped interviews
13/S4
55
No # - Paiute stories from tapes
13/S4
56
Tape#:35, Mabel Wright Paulina
13/S4
57
Tape#:151, 85, Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, Ruth; Tape#:88, 89, Houghton, Ethel O'Neil, Wheat; Tape#:114
13/S4
58
Tape#:144, 81, Edna Jones, Wuzzie George, Tootsie Bowser; Tape#:148, 84, Winona Thomas; Tape#:143, 80
13/S4
59
Tape#:82, 83, Pinenut festival and prayer
13/S4
60
Tape#:95, 103, Helen Williams, Birdie Davis, Rosie Moose; Tape#:97, 149
13/S4
61
Tape#:33, 46, Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina, Lidia; Tape#:91, 93, Dunn, Bert Johnny
13/S4
62-63
Folio #1
13/S4
64
Tape#:74, Andy Vidovich
box
Item
Contents
13b/S4
1
Tape#:90, 96, Andy Vidovich, Don Vidovich, Dolly Vidovich; Tape#:100 Wheat
13b/S4
2
Tape#:77, 98, Birdie Dave, Helen Williams, Rosie Moose; Tape#:104, 106 Beth Crittenden Swartzman; Tape#:107, 138
13b/S4
3
Tape#:47, 50, Herbert Pancho, Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel; Tape#:72, 136 O'Neil, Jose French
13b/S4
4
Tape#:101, 102 Mabel Wright Paulina, Daisy Aster, Mamie Pancho Smith John
13b/S4
5
Tape#:113, 117, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina, Katie; Tape#:131-133 Frazier, Daisy Aster, Minnie Houten
13b/S4
6
Tape#:110, 116 Nellie Emm
13b/S4
7
Tape#:140, 86, Mabel Wright, Jean Smith, Wuzzie George
13b/S4
8
Tape#:148, 97, Wuzzie George, Tootsie Bowser; Helen; Tape#:143, Williams, Birdie Dave, Rosie Moose, Joline Williams, Wheat; Wuzzie George, Winona Thomas, Wheat.
13b/S4
9
Tape#:90, 100 Andy Vidovich, Dan Vidovich, Dolly Vidovich, Wheat; Andy Vidovich, Wheat
13b/S4
10
Tape#:50, 73, Mabel Wright Paulina; Mabel Wright Paulina; 135, 152 Wheat; Daisy Aster, Mabel Wright Paulina, Wheat; Harrison Frazier
13b/S4
11
Tape#:91, 111, Mabel Wright Paulina, Wheat; Edna Jones; 11, 140 Wheat; Inman; Jean Smith, Wheat
13b/S4
12
Tape#:89, 149, Katie Frasier, Mabel Wright, Wheat; Helen; 154? Williams, Wheat; Marion Paddy, Barney Miller
13b/S4
13
[19] No. # [note attached states "tape which was in #19 box" - appears to be Wuzzie George]
13b/S4
14
No # Tim Hooper interview [possibly tapes #40-43]
box
Item
Contents
14/S4
1-7
John (Jack) Sheehan. 7" reels, copied. Dubbed from wire spools #11-19
14/S4
8
Cuyler. 7" reel, copied
box
Item
Contents
15/S4
9
Cye Cox. 7" reel, copied
15/S4
10
Sanford and Sheehan. 7" reel, copied
15/S4
11
Inman. 7" reel, copied
15/S4
12
Danielson, Marean. 7" reel, copied
15/S4
13
Gardner. 7" reel, copied
15/S4
14
Gardner. 7" reel, copied
15/S4
Professional (anthropologist) discussing artifacts
15/S4
Sheehan VIII, group singing
15/S4
Ichthyosaur State Park meeting, 1955
15/S4
Apparently field notes, copy of a letter to Casey
15/S4
Van Arsdale, perhaps music or chanting
box
Item
Contents
16/S4
15-17
Ed Dyer. 7" reels, copied, 1957
16/S4
18
T Alice [Steve?], Wuzzie George. Dubbed from wire spools #2 & 19. Cassette copy
16/S4
19
T Alice Steve, Wuzzie George. Dubbed from wire spools #5 & 8. Cassette copy
16/S4
19a
Alice Steve and Wuzzie George. From note on original box, this tape was to be transcribed, then erased
16/S4
20
T Dave Marshall, Alice Steve. Dubbed from wire spools #8 & 18. Cassette copy
box
Item
Contents
17/S4
21
Nixon Council, May 14, 1960
17/S4
22a&b
T Wuzzie George and Alice Steve at the Univ. of Nevada Biology Dept. with Tom Trelease. [Tapes are marked "Steve, George (Wuzzie?) UN 9 March 52]. Dubbed from wire spool #22
17/S4
23
T Alice Steve, Wuzzie George U. of N. Dubbed from wire spool #20. 7" reel and cassette copies
17/S4
24
T Alice Steve, Wuzzie George, Dave Marshall. 7" reel, copied. Dubbed from wire spools #4 & 7
17/S4
25-25a
Edna Jones at Schurz. Dubbed from wire spool #24. Tape 25A copied on 7" reel
17/S4
26-29
T Wuzzie George. Dubbed from wire spools #31, 34, 35. 7" reel copy, February 27, 1957
17/S4
30-30a
T Wuzzie George, Lily Shaw, Dora John. 7" reel, copied
17/S4
31
T Wuzzie George. Dubbed from wire spool #35. 7" reel, copied, February 27, 1957
box
Item
Contents
18/S4
32
T Wuzzie George, Jean Hurd (rabbit drive, land, camps, population). Dubbed from wire spool #35. 7" reel, copied
18/S4
33
T Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina. 7" reel, copied
18/S4
34
Mabel Wright Paulina
18/S4
35
T Mabel Wright Paulina and Wheat en route to Rye Patch. 7" reel, copied, June 3, 1964
18/S4
36
No tape. Status sheet indicates that content was songs-Admission Day
18/S4
37
A. Winnemucca and Tippy Wadsworth, songs
18/S4
38
McCann, Ike Boney, Eva, Wuzzie, songs
18/S4
39
Willie Jones songs, 1957
18/S4
40-43
T Tim Hooper, recorded in Tonopah
18/S4
44
Edna Jones and Wuzzie George. Death, moving house, church auction, snow and porcupine legends. Re: program at U of N, May 1-2. Schurz, May 6, 1964
18/S4
45
T Tim Hooper, women talk
18/S4
46
T Lidia Dunn, Mabel Wright Paulina, Nina Winnemucca, Bert Johnny, Margaret Wheat
box
Item
Contents
19/S4
47
T Herbert Pancho and Mabel Wright Paulina, May 1964
19/S4
48
Mabel Wright Paulina. Original peyote tape, May 1964
19/S4
49
Mabel Wright Paulina, May 1964
19/S4
50
T No tape. Mabel Wright Paulina (wonderful dream)
19/S4
51
T Alice Steve, Sven Liljeblad, 1951
19/S4
52a&b
T Wuzzie George, Ethelyn Coverston, July 25, 1956
19/S4
53
Fritz Riddell, September 1954
19/S4
54
Edna Jones, May, 1952
19/S4
55
Pyramid Lake Tribal meeting re. Pyramid lease
19/S4
56
Charles Camp, pinenut prayer and dance, 1953
19/S4
57
Nixon open meeting re. lease of Pyramid
19/S4
58a&b
T Wuzzie and Jimmie George at Stillwater, November 24, 1956
19/S4
59
Indian songs
19/S4
60
Nixon meeting, A. Winnemucca, B. Ladd
19/S4
61
Stewart Ridley
19/S4
62
T Wuzzie George, Wendell Wheat, March 29, 1958
19/S4
63
T Wuzzie George, Edna & Willie Jones, April, 1964
box
Item
Contents
20/S4
64
Edna and Willie Jones, Schurz. Element distribution, spring - for dreaming, location, Reese River Canyon, pass over Wasuck, travel [original punctuation unclear], April 1965
20/S4
65
Tippy Wadsworth, Indian songs, Fernley P.T.A
20/S4
66
Willie & Edna Jones, fish weirs (Tule Springs)
20/S4
67
T Practice dance, October 27, 1955
20/S4
68
T Syd Lamb, impressions
20/S4
69
Herbert Pancho, Mabel Wright Paulina, 1964
20/S4
70-71
Herbert Pancho
20/S4
72
Mabel Wright Paulina, May, 1964
20/S4
73
Mabel Wright Paulina, May, 1964
20/S4
74
Andy Vidovich, Alice Vidovich, February 1966
20/S4
75-76
Paiute text recorded by Sven Liljeblad, Rosie Quartz, Girtie Holbrook
20/S4
77
Helen Williams, Am. Arc. meeting. Also Birdie Dave, Rosie Moose, Spring 1968
20/S4
78
Essie Allen, June 1968
20/S4
79
Wuzzie George, June 11, 1968
20/S4
80
Wuzzie George
20/S4
81
Wuzzie George. (Stored in box 19 because of size)
20/S4
82
Wuzzie George - hummingbird
20/S4
83
Pinenut festival. Schurz, September 28, 1968
20/S4
84
Wuzzie George. No tape available
20/S4
85
Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, songs. Cassette copy
20/S4
86
Wuzzie George. Cassette copy
20/S4
87
A. Winnemucca, Billie Williams re Fish Council
20/S4
88-89
Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina. Cassette copies, 1968
20/S4
90
Andy Vidovich
20/S4
91
Mabel Wright Paulina
20/S4
92
Margaret Wheat report
20/S4
93
T Nina Winnemucca, Mabel Wright Paulina
20/S4
94
Astronauts
20/S4
95
T Helen Williams
20/S4
96
T Andy Vidovich
20/S4
97
T Birdie Dave, Helen Williams, Rosie Moose
20/S4
98
T Helen Williams
20/S4
99
T Wuzzie George and Ray Alcorn at Nevada State Museum
box
Item
Contents
21/S4
100
T Andy Vidovich
21/S4
101
T Mabel Wright Paulina, Daisy Aster
21/S4
102
T Mabel Wright Paulina, Mamie John
21/S4
103
T Helen Williams, Birdie Dave. No tape available
21/S4
104
T Helen Williams, Birdie Dave, April 29, 1969
21/S4
105
T Helen Williams, April 30, 1969
21/S4
106
T Birdie Dave sings, May 8, 1969
21/S4
107
T Helen Williams, May 16, 1969
box
Item
Contents
22/S4
108
Helen Williams, continued. (duplicate in Box 19 because of size), May 16, 1969
22/S4
109
Lulu Jim, Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina
22/S4
110
T Nellie Emm, May 23, 1969
22/S4
111
Edna Jones. No tape available
22/S4
112
Edna Jones, May 26, 1969
22/S4
113
T Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil, June 7, 1969
22/S4
114
T Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil, Ruth Houghten, June 20, 1969
22/S4
115
T Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina, Katie Frazier. Copied onto 5" reel
22/S4
116
T Nellie Emm, July 10, 1969
22/S4
117
T Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina, June 25, 1969
22/S4
118
T Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, August 5, 1969
22/S4
119
T Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad. No tape available. Copied from wire spool #24
22/S4
120-121
T Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, August 6, 1969
22/S4
122-123
Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, August 7, 1969
22/S4
124-130
Wuzzie George, Sven Liljeblad, August 11-15, 1969
22/S4
131
T Katie Frazier, Daisy Aster, Mabel Wright Paulina, September 1969
22/S4
132
T Katie Frazier, Mabel Wright Paulina, Minnie Houten (stored in box 19 because of size)
box
Item
Contents
23/S4
133
T Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina
23/S4
134
Ethel O'Neil, Mabel Wright Paulina, Karen Jensen, Count Poralli (spelling?)
23/S4
135
Daisy Aster, Mabel Wright Paulina. No tape available
23/S4
136
T Ethel O'Neil, Josie French, Mabel Wright Paulina
23/S4
137
T Katie Frazier. No tape available
23/S4
138
T Helen Williams, November 11, 1969
23/S4
139
Amy James, Frances Brown
23/S4
140
Jean Smith. Copied onto cassette (2 copies), January 10, 1970
23/S4
141
T Marion Paddy, January 13, 1970
23/S4
142
T Edna Jones. No tape available
23/S4
143
T Wuzzie George tells stories, April 1, 1970
23/S4
144-145
T Wuzzie George, Edna Jones, Dr. Payne, about sweat ceremony in Fall, 1969
23/S4
146
Edna Jones, Ruth Russell, April 19, 1970
23/S4
147
T Dr. Ralph Payne, April 21, 1970
23/S4
148
T Wuzzie George, Tootsie Bowser
23/S4
149
T Helen Williams re census sheets
23/S4
150
Mabel Wright Paulina, Herbert Pancho, November 1970
23/S4
151
T Storage of Telmar tape recorder recordings. Katie, Ethel, Mabel
box
Item
Contents
24/S4
152
Indian songs by Harrison Frazier at a public meeting
24/S4
153
Edna Jones at Tahoe, 1965
24/S4
154
Marion Paddy, Barney
24/S4
155
Mabel Wright Paulina, Herbert Pancho on census
24/S4
156
Mabel Wright Paulina, Ethel O'Neil
24/S4
157
Mrs. Alex Miller re Wovoka. Copied onto 5" reel
24/S4
165
T Wuzzie George at Soda Lake.
24/S4
No #, 2 unidentified tapes.
24/S4
No #, 3 tapes: "Elko Conf.," "N.A.S. No. 1 & 2."
24/S4
175
Wheat, Herbert Poncho, Mabel Wright, Pyramid Lake songs, texts, Wheat discussing archaeological cave sites.
24/S4
176
Letter dictated to Sven Liljeblad.
Contents
Wire Tapes (with a notation as to which reel-to-reel tape contains a copy)
box
Item
Contents
25/S4
1
Alice Steve, Indian words.
25/S4
2
Alice Steve, home life. (Transcribed onto tape #18.)
25/S4
3
Ed Dyer., March 1957
25/S4
4
Land birds. (Transcribed onto tape #24.)
25/S4
5
Plants, 1-20 Animals. (Transcribed onto tape #19.)
25/S4
6
Artifacts.
25/S4
7
Water birds, birds of prey, game, wading birds. (Transcribed onto tape #24.)
25/S4
8
Shrubs 20-32, Marsh plants 32-59. (Transcribed onto tape #19) to plant no. 44 (phragmites).
25/S4
9
Artifacts.
25/S4
10
Impersonations - Syd Lamb.
25/S4
11-17
Sheehan I-VIII; #V missing. (Transcribed onto tapes #1-7.)
25/S4
18
Pyramid, insects, seasons of the year.
25/S4
19
Cordage, sagebrush, bark, baskets, burial. (Transcribed onto tape #18.)
25/S4
20
Reptiles 10, Spiders 3, trees 9, fishes 9, frogs 3. (Transcribed onto tape #23.), 1952
25/S4
21
Not identified.
25/S4
22
Listed as "not recorded". Indicated as transcribed on tape #22 ("fish reptiles at U of N., Mar. 9, 1952").
25/S4
23
Willie Jones singing (rather poor - not copied onto tape).
25/S4
24
Edna Jones. (Transcribed on tapes 25 & 25A.)
25/S4
24b
Snakes, insects at U of N. (Transcribed onto tape #22.), March 9, 1952
25/S4
25
Dyer, Deb Stewart, LeRoy Schank., January 16, 1951
box
Item
Contents
26/S4
26
Artifacts at Museum, March 25, 1952
26/S4
26
"Snagged on rewind, contents on tape."
26/S4
27
Not identified.
26/S4
28
"File indicates not recorded."
26/S4
29
Mr. & Mrs. Ed A. Dyer. (Transcribed onto tape #14.), March 1957
26/S4
30
The Family. Wuzzie George, Dora John, Lily Shaw, Maxine Robbins, M. Wheat. "[Check #29-30 for transcription.]"
26/S4
31
Wuzzie No. 3, February 27, 1957
26/S4
32
Fish, reptiles, U of N.
26/S4
33
Willie Jones.
26/S4
34
Wuzzie No. 6. (Transcribed onto tape #29.), February 27, 1957
26/S4
35
Wuzzie No. 2, February 27, 1957
26/S4
A Pygmy Mummy - Wheat record.
26/S4
No #, Blank
26/S4
2 wire take-up reels and directions.
Contents
Cassette Tapes. (The following tapes were originally recorded on cassette tapes)
box
Item
Contents
27/S4
135
Nixon, May 5, 1969
27/S4
143a
Wuzzie George and Winona.
27/S4
143b
Wuzzie George and Winona.
27/S4
150
Mabel Wright Paulina and Herbert Pancho, census.
27/S4
159
Wuzzie George. Water jugs, houses, food storage, March 4, 1976
27/S4
160
Rolling Thunder - Sizzman.
27/S4
161
Dexter. Washo.
27/S4
162-164
Jean Dexter., December 1974
27/S4
166
Snake Colony. Pug Ike (Shoshone), Juanita Ike, Louise Brady, identification of plants, December 26, 1974
27/S4
167-168
Wuzzie George identifying plants, December 16-17, 1974
27/S4
169
Mabel Wright Pauline, Ethel O'Neil.
27/S4
170-171
Amy Williams - Shoshone.
27/S4
172
Wuzzie George, Kay Fowler, Margaret Wheat.
27/S4
173-174
Wuzzie George, Kay Fowler, Margaret Wheat, Sven Liljeblad., September 1977
27/S4
175
Wheat, Herbert Poncho, Mabel Wright, Pyramid Lake songs, texts. Wheat discussing archaeological cave sites.
27/S4
176
Letter dictated to Sven Liljeblad.
box
Item
Contents
28
Lily McGinnis.
28
Carbon 14 dating; MT.
28
Archaeological; Archaeology.
28
Jon Davis; Carbon 14 dating.
28
Roger - argument.
28
Pleistocene climate; MT.
28
Pleistocene geology, MT (2 tapes).
28
Pack rat; Peg Wheat.

Series 5: Photographs and Film

Several thousand photographs were donated to the Special Collections Department by Mrs. Wheat, most of which are of the Fallon area or of Northern Paiute subjects. These photographs include those used for research and publication in Wheat's book, Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes; photographs attributed to photographer Laura E. Mills; and photographs and negatives taken by Rolly R. Ham of scenes in the Fallon, Nevada region. These photographs and the film described below, were transferred to the photo archives sections of the Special Collections Department.

Laura E. Mills Photographs:

This group contains 18 photographic prints showing food harvesting, primarily pinenuts, and six prints showing earthquake damage around Fallon and Stillwater, 1954.

Rolly R. Ham Photographs:

This group of over 800 prints, negatives and glass plate negatives depict scenes in the Fallon area; however, other subjects include the Lahontan Dam construction, Northern Paiute Indians, Donner Lake, and Reno and San Francisco scenes.

Margaret M. Wheat Photographs:

In addition to photos used in Survival Arts this group of images includes prints and negatives taken by Wheat showing Northern Paiute activities such as food gathering, pinenut harvesting, cui-cui fishing, preparing hunting implements, tanning deer hides, weaving, and playing games; scenes of historical sites such as Cold Springs Station, Grimes Station, and Fort Scott, Nevada; the Lahontan Valley area; Little Lake, California archaeological dig, and some unidentified landscapes, flood, and camp scenes.

Research Photographs:

A small group of photographs was encountered while processing the subject files and "Indian" files. Subjects include Jack Wilson (Wovoka) and his grave, the sticks used in the 1879-1880 Indian stick census, earthquake evidences, oil drilling sites, Lahontan Dam construction, Pyramid Lake in the 19-teens, and an Indian exhibit held in Fallon in the 19-teens.

Films:

As part of the Fleischmann/Foresta grant, several thousand feet of movie film were shot depicting Paiute lifeways; in addition, the Nevada State Education Department paid for black and white footage which was to be used in Nevada schools. This footage, shot in 1964 and 1979, was compiled into a movie called "Tule Technology," released in 1983. The film was narrated by the grandson and granddaughter of Wuzzie and Jimmie George and depicts the life of the Stillwater Paiutes. The film was produced by the Anthropology Department of the University of Nevada, Reno in conjunction with the Smithsonian Office of Folklore. Project producers were Catherine Fowler, Margaret Wheat, and Tom Venum Jr. The film is available on VHS video cassette for checkout through the multimedia center in @One, Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center, University of Nevada, Reno.

The original film footage which is contained in the Margaret Wheat collection is in color as well as black and white and consists of two formats: brief film segments (5-10 minutes or less) on specific topics such as basket making and pinenut gathering, and seven longer reels (400-1000'), each of which consists of a number of activities and scenes. This latter film is credited to Dave Nichols and was made in 1964. All descriptions below are courtesy of Catherine Fowler, UNR Anthropology Department.

The original film footage is not available for viewing and is stored in the Special Collections vault. VHS video tape copies of these films have been made and are available for patron viewing.

Contents
Tape 1
Contents
Wuzzie George and several other women gathering reed or tules.
Contents
Splitting and peeling reeds.
Contents
Making a basket from prepared materials.
Contents
Finished baskets on glass museum shelving, close up of designs.
Contents
Woman in front of exhibit of Dat-So-La-Lee baskets.
Contents
More close ups of basket details.
Contents
Wuzzie George and women gathering wild grain, winnowing grain.
Contents
Woman cutting paper pattern, transferring pattern to animal hide & cutting out pieces. Soaking and other hide curing preparations.
Contents
Gathering and splitting reeds or grasses.
Contents
Gathering short green shoots, wild onions. Wuzzie eating something, cooking something in hot coals.
Contents
Sorting dried materials, removing cooked food from fire. Splitting reeds, using product to sew skins.
Contents
Women winnowing in field.
Contents
Tape 2
Contents
Wuzzie and another woman gathering cat tail reeds from field, bundling them.
Contents
Wuzzie making duck decoy from tules, showing finished decoy.
Contents
Panorama of plain and mountains. Wuzzie gathering seeds, gathering clumps of reeds, trimming with knife after they were bundled, shaping into duck decoy body.
Contents
Making duck decoy.
Contents
Shopping at Safeway supermarket.
Contents
Museum panorama showing Indian life.
Contents
Gathering and preparing pinenuts.
Contents
Shopping at Safeway supermarket.
Contents
Mats made of tules.
Contents
Wuzzie gathering pinenuts and preparing.
Contents
Woman making a basket.
Contents
Panoramic view of fields and mountains. Gathering slender branches, removing twigs. Trash strewn along countryside. Fish swimming in stream.
Contents
Tape 3
Contents
Wuzzie and her daughter Winona George gathering tules, weaving mats to form walls of house. Setting up branches which form wall supports, covering with tule mats.

Series 6: Correspondence of S.R. Mareans, 1918-1968

This series contains letters sent by S.R. Mareans, father of Margaret Wheat, to his family and friends. The subjects of these letters includes news of his work and activities of he and his wife, and news of other family members which Mr. Marean heard first hand or from letters. Series 6 materials are stored in Box 29.

This correspondence is arranged chronologically.

Series 7: Manuscripts of Survival Arts of the Primitive Paiutes, Undated

This series contains two manuscript copies of Wheat's book: a working copy and a copy labeled "First Draft." These drafts were given the working title of "Lost Arts of Primitive Paiutes." Series 7 materials are also stored in Box 29.